The Emergence of Ethnic Militia in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria and Its Impacts on Revenue Generation in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: A Critical Appraisal, 2009-2011
In recent times, tourism and hospitality industry has become a strong source of generating huge revenue for governments and private sector in many parts of the world and should be contributing to the well-being of citizens in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria The Niger delta region is one of the most resource-endowed regions in the world but its citizens are among the poorest as there is a persisting paradox of a rich region inhabited by poor people. In view of this, governments have seen enough reasons to support and promote the industry in order to generate revenue for the benefits for thepeople. The emergence of ethnic militiahe however negatively affected the revenue generation in the industry. Therefore, the central position of this study is to examine the emergence of ethnic militia and its resultant impacts on revenue generation in the tourism and hospitality industry with the view to critically re-assessing the phenomenon within the period, 2009-2011. To achieve the objectives of the study, one research question was formulated, and literatures related to the variables were reviewed. From the findings, alienation, oil based environmental degradation and government neglect engendered frustration which provoked the emergence of ethnic militia.In addition, the study showed that the protests and agitations that were hitherto peaceful degenerated into militancy, violence and kidnapping of tourists, particularly expatriates. As a result, the industry suffered low patronage and generated less revenue. Based on this, the study concluded that the emergence of ethnic militia during the period under review which culminated in the displacement of thousands of people, destruction of properties and other crimes impacted negatively on revenue generation in the tourism and hospitality industry.The study therefore recommended among others, that the Nigerian government should ensure that the social insecurity experienced by the people is solved through infrastructural development, job creation and provision of economic empowerment opportunities for thousands of youths in the region. Secondly, the national policy and programme should be targeted at inculcating into the rural populace wealth-oriented behaviours and values that will dislodge the feeling of deprivation, and alienation. Materials for this study were drawn from two sources, namely, primary and secondary sources. The strategy of content analysis was used to systematically analyse data in view of the historical cum contemporary nature of the study.
Keywords: Emergence of Ethnic Militia; Tourism and Hospitality Industry; Revenue Generation; Niger Delta Region
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