Fabricated Nanomaterials in Soil Improvement Technologies and Their Applications
AbstractIn the era of rapid urbanization and with drastic climate changes, global agricultural systems and production are facing numerous, unprecedented promising challenges. To achieve high food security, optimum nutrition levels in the food production, advanced nanotechnology and nano-engineering are one of the important handy tools for boosting up of the soil improvement, healthy crop production and assuring sustainability. Nanotechnology and fabricated nanomaterials have excellent applications to improve soil chemistry, improving agricultural production by increasing the efficiency of inputs and minimizing relevant losses. Nanomaterials offer a wider specific efficient surface area to nano-fertilizers and nano-pesticides. Besides these, specifically designed nanomaterials are widely used as unique carriers of agrochemicals to facilitate the site-targeted controlled delivery of nutrients in the soil with increased crop protection. Due to their direct and intended applications in the precise management and control of soil inputs (fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides), nanotools such as nanobiosensors, nanosilica composites, fabricated nanomaterials etc support the development of high-tech agricultural techniques. This article emphasizes more on the nano-clay, nano-silica, nano-fibres, nano-alumina, CNTs etc are highly effective and efficient engineered manufactured nanomaterials which are very helpful in improving the soil properties and preventing from the depletion of natural resources, thus enhancing the soil sustainability which could not be attained through the conventional techniques.
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