Differential Estimate of Bias in Age and Gender on Mathematics Anxiety among Secondary School Adolescents in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

  • Adebukola Kabir Taiwo
Keywords: Mathematics anxiety, Differential item functioning, Secondary school adolescents in Ibadan, Oyo State


This research investigate the differential estimate of bias in gender and age in Mathematics anxiety among secondary school students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The sample size consists of 1,500 participants from some selected secondary schools in Ibadan. Expost facto design was adopted. The study instrument used was mathematics anxiety scale. Data were analysed using Mantel-Haenszel procedure for item bias in age and gender. The findings found no significant association between age and mathematics anxiety. A total of 30 items did not exhibit DIF. The significant level was greater than 0.05 (p< 0.05). This shows that there is no differential item functioning as regards adolescents’ age. It was identified that items function differently only with gender. Government, stakeholders, parents and scholars are to take the results of the findings into consideration, in order to reduce the level of anxiety among students, as well as, build students’ confidence and improve the performance of students in mathematics examinations or test.