Immune-Related Adverse Events Secondary to Cancer Immunotherapy: Reshaping Cancer Management
AbstractDevelopments in the fight against cancer have been slowly progressing in the last few decades. However, recent discoveries in cancer therapy involving inhibition of negative immune regulation have shown promise. This review explores the role of immunotherapy in managing cancer. The key accomplishments to date, physiological aspects of immunotherapy, current challenges as well as future outlook will be discussed. Traditionally, cancer has been managed using surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Despite controlling the growth of tumors, some patients experience tumor recurrences. In that case, immunotherapy offers an effective solution for specifically targeting and killing cancer cells and decreasing the rate of tumor relapse. The use of immunotherapy leads to autoimmune toxicities, which can affect multiple organ systems and are referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). In this review, we discuss the different irAE since recognizing such systemic toxicities would help in cancer management. Immunotherapy provides hope to fight a disease that has been stealing lives and offers an acceptable level of cancer management against different malignancies. However, given that cancer is a complicated process, researchers continue to gain more understanding with additional trials. Possibly, the future will offer a permanent effective therapeutic approach against different cancers.
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