Assessment of Leucocytes and CD4 Parameters of Healthy Shisha Smokers in a University Town in South-South Nigeria

  • I.O. Babatope
  • R.A. Amaechi
  • K.O. Iyevhobu
  • D. Enakoya
  • G.O. Ojiezele
Keywords: Shisha smokers, leucocyte counts, CD4 count, Ekpoma


Shisha smoking is very popular among students of university, colleges and schools for the pleasant and relaxing experience. This study was aimed at assessing the leucocytes and CD4 parameters of healthy shisha smokers in a university town in South Nigeria. A total of fifty healthy shisha smokers aged 17-33 years and of both sexes were recruited for this study. Fifty (50) apparently healthy non-smokers served as control. Leucocytes parameters were assessed for WBC total count and differential leucocyte count (DLC) using Sysmex KX-2IN haematology autoanalyzer while CD4 count was performed using flow cytometry method. The result obtained from this study revealed that the mean WBC total count of shisha smokers (5.32 ± 1.89) and that of the control subjects (4.83 ± 1.29) did not show any statistically significant difference (P>0.5). With respect to DLC, the mean neutrophil count (%) of shisha smokers (51.80 ± 12.83) against control (43.01 ± 9.36) revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05), whereas the mean values of lymphocyte count (%) of shisha smokers (37.80 ± 11.63) against control (46.64 ± 8.51) revealed a statistically significant decrease (P<0.05). The results of the mean values of the CD4 count of shisha smokers (987.86 ± 227.52) compared to control (999.09 ± 307.40) did not reveal any significant difference (P>0.05). Based on gender and age, the mean values of WBC total count and DLC were not affected (P>0.05). In contrast, there was a statistical significant increase (P<0.05) in the CD4 count of female shisha smokers compared to their male counterparts. However, there was an insignificant difference (P>0.05) between CD4 and age. From the present study, we can conclude that shisha smoking caused alteration in the leucocyte counts of the subjects we studied, particularly DLC but not that of CD4 count.