Ingredients of Lubricating Oil, Its Quality, and Testing Procedure

  • Muhammad Nasir Uddin
Keywords: Specific Gravity (SG), Lubrication, Grease, Additives, Viscosity, Calibration


Lubricants help to reduce friction between mating surfaces, which eventually reduces the heat generation from the moving surfaces. It removes foreign particles and particles from wear, removes excessive heat, seals some gaps, and in some cases transmits forces. Besides different applications in different industries, lubricants are used in medical sectors, such as bone joints, ultrasound tests, and ECG (Echocardiogram). They are mainly used to reduce friction and to contribute to the better and more efficient functioning of a mechanism. Lubricants are a combination of base oil and additives (usually 90% base oil and 10% additives). Additives reduce friction and wear, increase viscosity, improve viscosity index, and provide resistance to corrosion and oxidation, aging, or contamination. Proper lubrication decreases fuel consumption, decreases power wastage, and increases engine life. This article discusses in detail the qualities of oil, the importance of checking and choosing an oil, the key features the oil should have, and the ideal characteristics of an oil. It highlights the chemical composition and physical properties of the oil and helps to clarify some key questions about lubrication to select the proper lubricant. Even if this decision has already been made, this article will help to understand lubricant and lubrication.