Water Legislation and Surface Waters in the Northern Region

  • A. Pereira Júnior
  • E. R. Pereira
  • A. S. Sardinha
  • D. A. Moreira
  • R. P. Ribeiro
  • C. J. C. Bispo
  • H. E. E. Souza
  • J. P. B. Carneiro
  • E. S. Jesus

Abstract

The hydrographic basin and variables, the water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, streams, canals, swamps, veredas, and the springs that constitute the surface waters, as well as the areas that protect them, APA's and APP's, are environmentally pressured since the emergence of cities, both in the need to provide food and housing, due to population growth and exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this research was to carry out a quantitative analysis of the academic productions on the state of conservation of the surface waters of the seven states of the northern region. The method applied was a systematic and bibliometric review, with a survey of documentary data whose temporal cut was between 1981 and 2020. The bases for this search were: Coordination of Improvement of Research and Studies in Higher Education (CAPES), Google Scholar, Scientif Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Scientific Periodicals Electronic Library (SPELL), and the repositories of federal universities in the northern region. The statistical treatment of the data was done with the use of Excel software from the application of Descriptive Statistics. The data obtained and analyzed indicated that in the seven states ( =12.7) of this region 168 surveys were made, of which 89 (n = 53.0%) are related to the eight selective descriptors: hydrographic basin (n = 13; 14.6%): sub-basins (n = 4; 4.5%); micro-basins and APA's (n = 3; 3.4%) each; APP's (n = 11; 12.3%); water quality (n =31; 34.8%); water bodies (n = 8; 9.0%), and springs (n = 16; 18.0%). These researches have indicated that the state of conservation, especially of the springs, is not adequate, although there are specific state legislations for their conservation, but in practice this does not occur, mainly when urban growth, agriculture and cattle raising are involved, besides mining, the most impacting of them.Key words: Hydrology, Hydrogeographic, Water quality, Urbanization

Author Biographies

A. Pereira Júnior
E. R. Pereira
A. S. Sardinha
D. A. Moreira
R. P. Ribeiro
C. J. C. Bispo
H. E. E. Souza
J. P. B. Carneiro
E. S. Jesus
Section
Articles