Norms for Grip Strength in the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hand of Male and Female Apparently Healthy Adolescents

  • Okpala Benedict Chidubem
  • Onuka Samuel
  • Ezeukwu Antoninus Obinna
  • Okezue Obinna Chinedu


Hand dominance could be described as the phenomenon that occurs when one hand is preferred over the other for fine motor skills tasks. Hand grip strength is a physiological variable that is affected by a number of factors including age, gender and body size. The aim of this study was to ascertain norms for grip strength in the dominant and non-dominant hands of adolescent in Anambra state. A total of 2537 adolescents in Anambra secondary school were tested with the instrument Baseline Pneumatic hand dynamometer through multistage sampling technique in ex-post facto or Causal Comparative Research design. The instrument estimates peak grip strength over a 10 seconds period and sustained grip strength averaged across 10 seconds. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, mean, standard deviations and parametric inferential statistics of Pearson correlation. A normative data table was established indicating peak and grip strength. Male and female show increase in grip strength with age. Boys also show more strength in their peak and grip strength on both dominant and non-dominant hands more than females. Peak grip strength in dominant hands was higher than those of the non-dominant hand across gender. Strong correlation existed between grip strength, peak grip strength and the anthropometric measures, weight, height and in particular hand length. It also shows that as the child increased in age, height and weight, their grip strength significantly increases. These data may enable physiotherapists and physicians to compare a patient's score with the scores, of normally developed children according to age gender, handedness and body measures and also to measure the outcome of any surgical procedure involving the hand.Key Words: Hand Dominance, Hand grip Strength, Adolescent, Hand length

Author Biographies

Okpala Benedict Chidubem
Onuka Samuel
Ezeukwu Antoninus Obinna
Okezue Obinna Chinedu