Curbing the Menace of Re-Cycling Smokers in a Population through Mathematical Modeling Approach


  • Rwat Solomon Isa
  • Shehu Sidi Abubakar
  • Usman Garba


Smokers, Backward bifurcation, Stability, Recycle, Equilibrium


Smoking can cause or trigger many diseases that can lead to death or disability. It affects the person’s financial status and therefore his way of life. Hence, its negative impact on smokers includes cancer, stroke, heart diseases, immune disorder, infertility, a complication of pregnancy, pollution, mental health, depression, aging, and anxiety. It also affected one’s financial status. We formulate a SEMRE deterministic model to assess the effect of re-cycling smokers into the population. We compute the basic reproduction number of the model, its equilibrium points and their stability, the sensitivity indices of the parameters of the basic reproduction number and we perform numerical analysis of the model to see how it tallies with the result of analytical calculation. Our model exhibits a backward bifurcation for some parameters’ values. By varying the recycling parameter, the model bifurcation changes from the backward bifurcation to forward bifurcation as the recycling parameter reduces.


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