Distance Constraints and the Re-Emergence of Trade by Barter during COVID-19 Pandemic in Three Coastal Communities of Bayelsa State, Nigeria


  • Ezekiel Ovuokerie Gunn
  • Clement Ebizimor Deinne


COVID-19 pandemic, trade by barter, logistic regression, Bayelsa State, Nigeria


Physical distance constraints and the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have introduced uncertainties, affecting people's lives and livelihoods and disrupting food production, demand, and supply chains. This study examines the influence of distance constraints and the emergence of trade by barter at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in spatially isolated coastal communities in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A participatory survey research design was adopted in which three barter trade locations of Foropagha, Lobia and Ukubie communities were purposively selected due to the practice of trade by barter during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results revealed that females participated more in the barter trade with 308 (77.0%), while 92 (23.0%) were males. The economically active and youthful population of 155 (38.8%) between 31-40 years dominated the trade followed by 73 (18.3%) traders between 41-50 years, 126 (51.0%) received money and also exchanged food items at the markets during the COVID-19 pandemic, while 70 traders exchanged food items such as fish and farm produce during the pandemic. The result of the logistic regression reveals that age was more likely to influence the emergence of a trade by barter during the COVID-19 pandemic with an odd ratio of 9.3, followed by occupation at 9.1, income at 6.3, location at 4.8, and transportation at 3.5, as a result of the restrictions of movement and disruption of transportation, livelihoods, demands and supply of food items, and decreased purchasing power in the coastal communities reverted to trade by barter to avert food poverty, acute starvation and to sustain their major livelihoods of fishing and farming.


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